The BOSCAWEN, James Newell, was first sent to Chignecto to deport Acadians, but was not needed. (Ten transports were sent to Chignecto. Three were not needed, and were diverted to
the Grand-Pre area. They were the BOSCAWEN, James Newell, the DOVE, Samuel Forbes, and the RANGER, Nathaniel Munroe.) The BOSCAWEN, James Newell, ran aground at Piziquid and probably was not used.
The ships from Chignecto departed October 13, 1755 and joined the fleet from the Grand-Pre area. They departed together on October 27, 1755. Some of the arrival dates are estimates because the exact date could notbe determined.
The BOSCAWEN, David Bigham, is shown with 190 exiles. That number is
based on two-per-ton. This is also true of the UNION, Jonathan Crathorn, from Chignecto
because exact figures were not available.
There is no record of the DOVE, Samuel Forbes, arriving in Connecticut,
although it probably did.
The snow EDWARD, Ephraim Cooke, left Annapolis Royal with 278 exiles and
was blown off course by violent storms. It finally put in at Antigua, and continued to
Connecticut, arriving on May 22, 1756 with 180 exiles. Malaria had killed almost 100 exiles.
When they arrived in New London, Connecticut, their personal items (blankets, cushions, etc.)
were burned, further adding to their grief. Some of those known to be aboard the EDWARD
Marie "Burt" (widow of Charles Landry) and 7 children.
Marguerite Doucet (widow) and 5 children.
The ELIZABETH, Ebenezer Rockwell, left Annapolis Royal with 280 exiles, and arrived in New
London, Connecticut on January 21, 1756 with 277 exiles.
The ENDEAVOR, John Stone, was also known as the ENCHEREE.
The ENDEAVOR, James Nichols, arrived in South Carolina with 121
exiles. It is not known how many boarded at Chignecto.
The EXPERIMENT, Benjamin Stoddard, was blown off course
as was the EDWARD and arrived in New York, via Antigua with 200 exiles. It left Annapolis Royal with 250 exiles.
The HANNAH, Richard Adams, left Grand Pre with 140 exiles, and arrived in Pennsylvania with 137 exiles.
The JOLLY PHILIP, Jonathan Waite, arrived with
approximately 120 exiles. This schooner was from Falmouth (now Portland), Maine.
The LEOPARD, Thomas Church, was also known as the LEONARD or LEYNARD.
The PEMBROKE, Milton, was taken over by the exiles and sailed
into the St. John River. .
The PRINCE FREDERICK, William Trattles, arrived in Georgia with approximately 280 exiles about the end of December, 1755.
The SALLY AND MOLLY, James Purrington, was also known as the SARAH AND MOLLY.
The SWAN, Jonathan Loviett, left Grand-Pre with 168 exiles, and arrived in Pennsylvania with 161 exiles.
The SYREN, Charles Proby, was an escort ship, but also carried 21 French prisoners to South Carolina. Nine of these prisoners were considered to be too dangerous to remain in the Colonies, and were shipped to England almost immediately. The SYREN continued escorting to Georgia.
On the TWO BROTHERS, James Best, the exiles tried a takeover, and failed.
The TWO SISTERS, Captain's name unknown,(perhaps T. Ingram, who was master of this snow in 1757), is NOT shown arriving in Connecticut. It is believed that this ship was
replaced by the ELIZABETH, Capt. Rockwell. It is possible that this is the ship reported in the newspapers of the day as putting in at Rhode Island. That ship was bound for
New London, Connecticut with approximately 250 exiles.
The UNION, Jonathan Crathorn, probably sunk off the coast of Pennsylvania. There is no record of arrival in Pennsylvania.
The sloop (name unknown) of Capt. Worster arrived in Connecticut with 173 exiles from Minas Bay on January 22, 1756. This may be Capt. John Worster of Stamford,
Connecticut, who died March, 1775. He had lived the last 12 years of his life in Barbados. Capt. Worster is mentioned in Col. Winslow's Journal. On October 27, 1755, he left Fort
Cumberland (Beausejour) with two letters for Col. Winslow. From this we know that he did not depart with the main body of the fleet, but departed later. Since there are exiles in Connecticut
from Cape Sable, Beaubassin, Piziquid, and Grand-Pre, it is possible that he was assigned to pick up stragglers, and finally fill out at Grand-Pre before departing Minas Bay. Winslow shows 732 exiles shipped by Osgood, but only about 600 are accounted for. The remainder could have been shipped earlier on Capt. Worster's sloop.
Capt. Andrew Dunning must have returned to Nova Scotia after his voyage on the MARY to Virginia, as he is reported to have shipped about 100 exiles (94 arrived), in a schooner from
Cape Sable to New York. His schooner arrived in New York on April 28, 1756.
In addition to the SYREN, there were eight other ships assigned the task of escorting the fleet.
The SUCCESS, John Rouse, was to proceed with the fleet and then check the St. John River for French activities and for exiles.
The HORNET, ? Salt, was to proceed to Boston and then on to
The NIGHTINGALE, Dudley Diggs, put in at New York due to a severe storm. Severe storms and a massive earthquake occurred at the time of the deportation. Perhaps the Almighty was not pleased, and showed His discontent!
Please refer to the table for more information on the escort ships.
Also of interest is the fact that six vessels put in at Boston, and
exiles were put off there because of overcrowding. The numbers were reduced to two per ton as follows:
Number of Exiles removed from the following ships:
DOLPHIN, Zebad Forman, 47
ENDEAVOR, James Nichols, --
NEPTUNE, Jonathan Davis, 29
RANGER, Francis Pierey, 25
SALLY AND MOLLY,James Purrington 11
THREE FRIENDS, Thomas Curtis 21
The newspapers also report three other vessels with exiles at Boston which may have been sent there, or were just passing through. They are:
December 26,1755--A vessel with a considerable number of French exiles.
January 5, 1756--A ship from Halifax.
January ?, 1756--A snow with the largest number of French exiles yet, from
We should also note the arrival of 90
exiles in small boats from Georgia, who were detained in Boston.
In Virginia, the exiles were again deported, beginning in May of 1756 when 300 were
sent to Portsmouth, England on the BOBBY GOODRICH. The remainder were shipped in the
summer of 1756.
Not all of the vessels which deported the Acadians are mentioned,
but it is hoped that enough information is supplied to help you determine on which vessel your
ancestors were deported. The deportations continued long after 1756. These are not mentioned.
Perhaps someday more information will surface to help us all in our search.
In 1767, Acadians began returning to Canada in large numbers. In 1763, there were
reported 666 French in Connecticut, plus 122 French in a forgotten colony near Preston*,
Connecticut. Several Acadians returned to Quebec aboard the sloop HULDAH, William
Edwards. Charles Dupuis, his wife and 10 children were aboard, as was another Frenchman,
Joseph ?, his wife and son. Also in 1767, 240 French and their priest were carried to Quebec on
the brig. PITT, Capt. Richard Leffingwell (of Norwich, CT.). In 1772, Pierre Hebert, his wife
Elisabeth Dupuis and their children left Guilford, Connecticut for Quebec via Albany. Their
fare was paid by the town of Guilford, CT.
*NOTE: Some say it was only rumored that Acadians had been exiled to Preston, Connecticut. My source for that information is: "Diocese of Hartford [by] J. H. O'Donnell. Diocese of Burlington" [by] J. S ...
By William Byrne, William Augustine Leahy
Page 68 clearly shows the sum paid for transporting the "French People Brot into this Colony per Capt Rockwell & Distributed per order of the General Assembly, etc.." "To transporting these to preston as per Bill"
And so the exile was over for some. Others remained in the colonies. Still
others continued to be deported again and again for years to come.
By sorting the ship table in Part I of this article, some checks can be made, and some conclusions can be drawn. Please refer to Table #1 and Table #2. Because there is very little
information on these ships and their travels, some educated guesses will be taken. Hopefully, new information will become known so that guessing will no longer be necessary.
Table #1 was sorted by Departure place. We can see that eight ships left Annapolis Royal. The existence of the TWO SISTERS is questionable. It is very possible that the TWO SISTERS never left Annapolis Royal, but rather that it was replaced by the ELISABETH, Capt. Rockwell.
It is recorded in the papers of the day that the ELIZABETH arrived in Connecticut on January 21, 1756, with 277 French Exiles, and that 3 exiles had died in passage. The TWO SISTERS
was supposed to have 280 French on board, and is never reported as having arrived in Connecticut. So, I believe that a mistake was made in the name of the ship, or that the TWO
SISTERS was replaced by the ELIZABETH. The EXPERIMENT departed Annapolis Royal with 250 French. In some reports, it arrived in New York with 200 French, after a detour to
Antigua. The SYREN carried 21 French Prisoners, not 9 as reported. If these numbers are
adjusted accordingly, then the 1664 French deported from Annapolis is correct.
From the Cape Sable and Port Lature area, 166 French were deported --94 to New York by Capt. Dunning (probably on the MARY), and 72 were deported to Massachusetts on the
Adding the number of French Exiles from Chignecto, we find that we have a total of 1566. Some reports show that the actual number was about 1100, while one diary shows that 960 were
The ship UNION is not shown arriving in Pennsylvania, and may not have left Chignecto, or may have sunk in the bay on departure. One newspaper account shows it possibly
sinking off the coast of Pennsylvania. If the 392 Exiles aboard the UNION are subtracted from 1566, we have 1174 Exiles.
The BOSCAWEN also is not reported as arriving in Pennsylvania.
This schooner had a reported 190 exiles on board. If this number is subtracted, the total from Chignecto is 984 Exiles. It is to be remembered that the number of Exiles deported from
Chignecto is based on 2 per ton, not the actual number loaded. The newspapers of the day indicate two ships sunk with a large number of French aboard. It could have been the UNION
and the BOSCAWEN.
The ships that deported the French from the Grand-Pre area in October of 1755 were, the ELIZABETH, Capt. Millbury, the HANNAH, the LEOPARD, the SALLY AND MOLLY, the SWAN, the ENDEAVOR, Capt. Stone, the INDUSTRY, the MARY, the RACE HORSE, and the PROSPEROUS, for a total of 1559 French. This is right in line with all reports.
The number of French deported from Piziquid, 1062 Exiles, is also right in line with the reports.
Capt. Winslow left the chore of deporting the remaining Exiles of the Grand-Pre area to Capt. Osgood. These Exiles were mainly from the Pointe des Boudros Area (Canard and
Habitant). He deported 582 Exiles in December 1755. As reported in Part I of this article, there was another ship, Capt. Worster's Sloop (name unknown), which was probably loaded with Exiles late in November 1755, from this area. Capt. Worster arrived in Connecticut with 173 French. Some of the French aboard this Sloop was probably from the far eastern part of Minas Bay, and the remainder were probably from Canard and Habitant. This brings the total deported by Capt. Osgood to 755 Exiles, which is very close to that reported in Capt. Winslow's journal.
Table #2 is sorted by Destination. If we look at Connecticut, we notice that 1125 are shown.
The TWO SISTERS probably never left Annapolis Royal, as previously mentioned. This brings the number of Exiles deported to Connecticut to 845.
The EDWARD arrived in Connecticut, after being blown off course to Antigua, with 180 Exiles, and 3 Exiles died in passage on the ELIZABETH, Capt. Rockwell. This brings the total that arrived to 742 that is right in line with the 666 Exiles, and a lost colony of French reported in Preston, Connecticut supposed to be 122, for a total of 788 reported in Connecticut in 1763.
The numbers for Georgia 400, Maryland 913, New York 344, South Carolina 947, North Carolina 50, and Virginia 1150, are all in line with reported arrivals.
In Pennsylvania, the total shown is 1046. If the 392 Exiles that were reported on the UNION are subtracted, and the 190 Exiles reported on the BOSCAWEN are subtracted, the number is 464. Reports show that 450 arrived in Pennsylvania. I believe that the UNION and BOSCAWEN never arrived, and probably never left Chignecto - or sunk near Pennsylvania *as reported earlier in this report*.
If the Exiles aboard the TWO SISTERS, the UNION, and the BOSCAWEN are subtracted
from the total number of Exiles, the total is 6302, which is also in line with earlier reports.
Table #3 is sorted by CAPTAIN, so that you can find information, if you know the Captain's name.
It is my sincere hope that this information will be helpful to anyone doing research on this subject. I welcome any information that you may have.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. The British Empire before the
American Revolution, Vol. 6, Lawrence H. Gipson
2. Journal of Col. John Winslow, Nova Scotia Historical Soc. Collections, volumes 3+4, 1885.
3. Exile without an End, Chapman Milling.
4. The Acadian Miracle, Dudley J. LeBlanc.
5. Miscellaneous Papers, 29th Report of Boston Records.
6. A Century at Chignecto, William R. Bird.
7. Canadian Archives, Vol 2, 1905.
8. Colonial Newspapers of the day--The Connecticut Gazette, The New York Gazette-Mercury,
The Boston Gazette, The Maryland Gazette, etc.
9. The History of Norwich, Frances Caulkins.
Thanks to Miss Brenda Dunn, Project Historian of the Canadian Parks Service, Atlantic Region,
Halifax, Nova Scotia, for supplying valuable information.
Special thanks to Mr. Stephen A. White for supplying information, advice, and expert assistance
for this report. Mr. White is a Master Genealogist from the University of Moncton, Moncton,