Paul Delaney

in Les Cahiers de la Societe historique acadienne vol. 35, nos. 1 & 2 (Jan-Jun 2004)

Translation by Karen Theriot Reader

The Insurrection of the Deported

        The history of the Acadians who escaped the 1755 Deportation by seizing the boat which transported them into exile has become legendary. This incident has even inspired a novel in English, Acadian Betrayal by Mary Weekes, published in 1955. But the story of this boat is in fact historic. The passengers of the Pembroke are the only important group of Acadians on the way to being deported who succeeded in escaping the Deportation. Several contemporary accounts recount for us how they were able to escape from exile, and what fate they met afterwards.

        The Pembroke was a Snow.1 of 42 tons, which carried provisions for 139 days. On December 4th, 1755, at the Ile aux Chevres (Goat Island) in the Dauphin River across from Annapolis Royal, two hundred thirty-two Acadians were embarked on this boat destined for North Carolina.2 Along with six other vessels transporting Acadians, it raised anchor on December 8th. There were only eight Englishman in the crew on the Pembroke. When bad weather separated the Pembroke from the other boats, and from the frigate which accompanied them, the Acadian passengers saw their chance.3 According to the letter signed later by several passengers on the boat, they revolted, and without any defense from the English, became masters of the ships [sic].4

According to a contemporary account in the Pennsylvania Gazette (March 18th, 1756), they carried [the ship] into St. Mary Bay; when after lying a Month, they sailed for St John. They arrived on the Saint Jean River on January 8th, 1756.5 The region was still under the control of French troops.

        Having arrived in the harbor at the mouth of the Saint Jean River, these Acadians were not at the end of their troubles. On the 8th or 9th of February, they were discovered by an English boat, disguised by flying French colours and with soldiers in French uniform. Four French deserters debarked to demand a pilot, and an unfortunate Acadian went aboard. But the boat revealed its true allegiance too quickly and immediately began firing. The Acadians of the Pembroke were camped in the vicinity... and having rushed up at the noise, they saw that the English were coming to take away the ship in which they had escaped. Removing some perriers6 from the Pembroke, the Acadians sought out all the arms which they could find, and, placing them advantageously, fired on the English boat.7 According to one letter from Governor-General de Vaudreuil, they ambushed them and firing a volley so lively from their muskets they forced them to return to Port Royal.8 The Acadians had suffered no losses on our side..9 Actually, the English had taken a sole prisoner, the unhappy pilot. The Acadians burned the boat so that it would not fall again into the hands of the English.10 It was only after this incident, when the news of the capture of the boat had reached them at Cocagne where he was based, that Monsieur de Boishebert, Commandant of the French troops, went to the Saint John River. The Acadians, seeing that it was too dangerous to remain down at the mouth of the river, went upriver in order to seek refuge in the Acadian villages there, carrying with them their eight prisoners from the English crew. Later, these were sent to Quebec.11

         The passengers from the Pembroke passed the winter 1755-1756 at the village of Sainte-Anne-des-Pays-Bas, today Fredericton. With more than six hundred people to feed, of whom more than two hundred were from the Pembroke, provisions were short. On August 6th, 1756, Vaudreuil mentions that Boishebert had sent several families to Quebec, and that the latter still had about 30 families from Port Royal with him.12 But many of the refugees from the Pembroke went to follow the others. During their preparations for their journey to a more secure refuge at Quebec, several of the former inhabitants of Port Royal wrote a most touching letter to the Abbe Daudin, their former and beloved pastor from Port Royal. 13 In a letter dated July 31st, 1756, they described their misadventures on the Pembroke and their plans to go to Quebec. Unhappily, the abbe Daudin never read it for he died before the arrival of the letter in France.

The Number of Escapees

        How many Acadian were there on the Pembroke There are some differences in the numbers furnished by different documents. The embarkation list gives us the following table:











Given the interest stirred up among the officials both in Acadia and in Quebec by this extraordinary event the abduction of a boat by the Acadians there are some other accounts, which unfortunately give us some other numbers. Admitttedly, in the documents the boat is never named, but there is no doubt that they refer to the Pembroke. It was Governor Lawrence,15 in a letter of February 18th, 1756, who first mentioned the fact that the Pembroke had been seized by Acadians, but he does not speak of the number of escapees. In describing the trip of the disguised boat which had been sent to the Saint John River, Lawrence notes that the soldiers had found there

an English Ship, one of our Transports that sailed from Annapolis Royal with French Inhabitants a Board bound for the Continent, but the Inhabitants had risen upon the Master & Crew and carried the Ship into that Harbour.16

Abbe Le Guerne,17 missionary of the Acadians in present-day southeastern New Brunswick, left us a second account of this event. In a letter of March 10th, 1756 to Monsieur Prevost, Marshal at Isle Royale,18 and to Monsieur de Drucour, Governor at Louisbourg,19 he recounts the arrival at the Saint Jean River of an English boat carrying thirty-two families [sic] from Port Royal who added up to two hundred twenty-five persons.20 Furthermore, Prevost and Drucour, in a letter of April 6th , 1756 to the Ministry, speak of 34 Acadian families. 21 For his part, Intendant Bigot22 writes from Quebec on April 12th, 1756 to the Ministry, mentioning 250 men, women and children from Port Royal, while the Marquis de Vaudreuil, at Montreal, speaks in his letter to the Ministry of 36 Acadian families making up 226 persons.23 Finally, the Memoire sur les Affaires de Canada depuis 1749 jusquau 1760 speaks of about thirty [families] of these unhappy people."24 Seeing that Abbe Le Guerne was the only one at this date who would have been able to meet some passengers from the boat himself, he would appear to be the better informed. However, the numbers furnished by the others are perhaps taken from letters or reports by Boishebert or other persons on the spot in Acadia.

         What conclusions can be drawn from these numbers. In the documents, we have seen that there are certain discrepancies in the number of families and of passengers. Several the 250 persons according to Bigot, and the about thirty families of Memoire seem to us approximate, but others are more precise. Vaudreuil speaks of 36 families and 226 persons while Le Guerne gives 32 families and 225 persons. The embarkation list gives us 232 passengers. It is indeed possible that 232 had left Port Royal and that 5 or 6 had died in the four succeeding weeks, before arriving at the Saint John River. As to the number of families, the difference could be explained by the definition of what constitutes a family. Then, one can conclude that there were no more than 26 families embarked and that 225 or 226 persons arrived at the Saint Jean River.

The Criteria of the Reconstitution

         No list of the passengers of the Pembroke has survived. Nevertheless, it is possible for us to identify nearly all of the 232 passengers on a reconstituted embarkation list. In studying this question carefully, we have established certain criteria for guiding our reconstitution. In analyzing the letter addressed to the Abbe Daudin and in examining geographic origins, ancestral links, the presence or even the absence of persons mentioned in certain documents, we can succeed in drawing up the list of families whose presence on the Pembroke is certain for some, and probable for others. Of course, the list thus established must conform to the numbers which we have given in the preceding section.

         First of all, the names of certain passengers are given in the "Lettre des anciens habitants de Port Royal" L'abbe Daudin (Letter from the former inhabitants of Port Royal to Abbe Daudin), of July 31st , 1756. These are the following:

Denis Petitot dit Saint-Seine [signed]

Denis Petitot dit Saint-Seine fils [made his mark]

Pierre Gourdeau [made his mark, son-in-law of Petitot, father]

Charles Dugas [mentioned in the text, and made his mark]

Joseph Guilbeau [made his mark]

These men attest to their presence on the ship. Certainly, they were not embarked alone, but with their families: wives, children, often their fathers and mothers, and even their brothers and sisters.

         One such extended family was that of Denis Petitot dit Saint-Seine, who was present with his son, his son-in-law, their children, and probably other members of his family. On the maps of Port Royal made by Pierre-Paul Delabat around 1708 and 1710, the Petitots are seen settled in the area of the town which was called Ile Cap, or The Cape.25 Two other individuals who made their mark at the bottom of the letter were the cousins Charles Dugas and Joseph Guilbeau, whose mothers were sisters. In the census of 1714, Claude Dugas, father of Charles, was enumerated near the fort, but the Delabat maps inform us that his settlement was actually found outside of Port Royal, on the south bank of the Dauphin River, whereas Charles Guilbeau, father of Joseph, also enumerated near the fort en 1714, lived across from Claude Dugas, on the north bank of the river. Their properties are clearly visible on the map of Port Royal and the river Dauphin drawn up after the itinerary of the census-taker in 1707 and published in the Atlas historique du Canada.26 The lands occupied by Claude Dugas and Charles Guilbeau in 1714 were most probably still occupied by their descendants in 1755. The other families deported on the Pembroke in 1755 resided very probably in the same vicinity, for example at the Cape in Port Royal, or in the region to the west of the town, along the Dauphin River.

         The letter of July 31st, 1756, mentions not only some individuals, but also several groups who were found on the Pembroke:

Les gens du cap

The people of the Cape

Les Guilbauds

The Guilbauds

Les Boudros

The Boudros

Deux familles des granges

Two families from the granges

The Petitot dit Saint-Seine family lived on the Cape and thus made up part of this first group. According to the judge Savary, cited by Placide Gaudet,

it is called the Cape from where the first road to Halifax starts from the main street of Annapolis into the junction with the other road that leads to Lequille and Halifax. The territory called the Cape embraces both those roads and the settlements on them.27

         There was also the Chemin du Cap (Cape road), which went from the Cape to Fort Anne.28 The Cape and the Chemin du Cap are shown on the Port Royal maps made by Delabat around 1708 and around 1710, and the house of Petitot dit Saint-Seine is clearly seen there.29 The senior Denis Petitot dit Saint-Seine, who was named as being on the Pembroke, was also at the Cape in the census of 1714 with his family and next door to his parents, Denis Petitot and Marie Robichaud.30 His son Denis and his son-in-law, Pierre-Jacques Gourdeau, who were also found on the Pembroke, no doubt also lived there in 1755.

         We believe that it was so for the other families of the Pembroke, who were descended from families already established at Port Royal, and who had chosen to remain there after the English occupation. The 1714 census indicates the families who lived at the Cape at this period, but we have already noted those who remained at Port Royal after this date (Appendix B). The Delabat maps show us the position of the houses of these families at Cape Port Royal in about 1708 (often burned by the English in 1707) and in about 1710 (reconstructed) (Appendix D). Between the Cape itself and the house of Petitot dit Saint-Seine are found the houses of Jean Babineau, and of the brothers Prudent Robichaud and Francois Robichaud dit Niganne. Beside Petitot lived Andre Simon and his family. To the north of the Cape are found the houses of Claude and Pierre Landry, of Pierre Pellerin, of Jacques Doucet dit Maillart, and of Francois Raymond. The gens du Cap who were found on the Pembroke in 1755 were their descendants.

         As with the Petitot, these families remained on their ancestral lands. Prudent Robichaud, brother-in-law of the first Denis Petitot, was enumerated at the Cape in 1714. A 1734 list demonstrates that he also had some lands at Beausejour, in the vicinity of the Cape.31 This place was situated where the "village des Robichaud" is on the 1733-1753 map of Port Royal.32 Placide Gaudet affirms that Prudent Robichaud was aboard the Pembroke, and that he died on the Saint Jean River during the summer of 1756 on the verge of departing for Quebec.33 His brother, Francois Robichaud dit Niganne, as well as Claude Melanson, husband of Marguerite Babineau, were owners of land at the Cape of Annapolis Royal in 1734. Afterward on the same 1734 list come the brothers Claude and Jean Landry, sons of Claude Landry and Marie Babineau, sister of Marguerite. Marie and Marguerite Babineau are the only children of Jean Babineau and Marguerite Boudrot who figure also at the Cape in 1714, and who gave their name to Babineau Hill on the 1733-1753 map of Port Royal.34 Finally, on the same map, between Babineau Hill and the Cape, is found Maillard Hill, the residence in 1714 of Jacques Doucet dit Maillard.35 The population of all these places the Cape, the "chemin du Cap," Babineau Hill, Maillard Hill, and Beausejourare included in the section of the Cape on the 1714 census. The 1734 census and the map of 1733-1753 suggest to us that all these families the Petitot and their collateral relatives, the Robichaud, the Melanson/Babineau, the Landry/Babineau, and the Doucet dit Maillard still lived there in 1755. To these families, one must add the Pellerin, the Raymond and the Surette, also settled on the Cape in 1714, who allied themselves later with the Petitot, and the Simon, allied to the Doucet dit Maillard.

         As to the Guilbauds and Boudros, the maps and censuses complete what we have already learned from the Lettre des anciens habitants de Port Royal (Letter of the former inhabitants of Port Royal). Joseph Guilbeau, named l'Officier, was found on the boat, undoubtedly with this family.36 Seeing that the surname is in the plural in the letter (Guilbuads), we believe that his brother Alexandre and his family must have been there also. The two brothers would have inherited the paternal lands on the north bank of the Dauphin River. As to the Boudros, no individual is mentioned in the text, nor at the end of the letter. But the Port Royal maps of 1708 and of 1710 show that Francois Boudrot lived on the south bank of the river, between the Cape and the settlement of Claude Dugas, whose son Charles was certainly on the Pembroke. Francois was enumerated near the fort in 1714. In 1755, we believe that Charles and Pierre Boudrot, two sons of Francois, were with their families on the Pembroke. Having inherited the land from their father, they must have lived inside the same geographic limits as those persons who were certainly on the boat.

         The "deux familles des granges" are more difficult to identify. We do not believe that this refers to two Granger families, as others have claimed.37 According to genealogist Mr. Stephen White, no Granger family could have been on the boat.38 In fact, we believe that "les granges" alludes to the former geographic placement of these families, rather than to their name. Despite the fact that this appellation is very appropriate for an agricultural community such as Acadia was, no place named les granges is indicated on the Port Royal maps.39 Moreover, no place of this name is known in our time. However, Charles Guilbeau, enumerated near the fort in 1714, was on a property called La Grange in 1734. As we have seen, Charles lived on the north bank of the Dauphin River to the west of Port Royal. Therefore, it is possible that this same place would be called sometimes la grange, sometimes les granges.40 On the maps of 1708 and of 1710, as well as on the map of the Atlas historique du Canada, it is seen that two families living in the proximity of the Guilbeau are the Melanson and the Belliveau. We are of the opinion that their descendants were the two families "des granges".

         Here, oral tradition comes to our aid. The Acadians in Quebec and in Acadia preserved some remembrances concerning the boat on which the passengers succeeded in escaping the Deportation. Abbe H.-R. Casgrain was one of the first authors to recount the history of the Pembroke in the nineteenth century. Based no doubt on memories of descendants of the escaped Acadians of the Pembroke who settled in Quebec, he speaks of an Acadian of Port Royal, by the name of Beaulieu, a former long-range navigator, who was the head of the group which seized the boat.41 But no Beaulieu family lived in Port Royal at this period.42 The Beaulieu name could be a corruption of Belliveau, because the tradition in Acadia, as recounted by Placide Gaudet in 1908 and in 1922, shows that a man named Charles Belliveau had been the leader of these Acadians.43 His story of the taking of the boat, gathered afterwards from a descendant of the brother of Charles Belliveau in Acadia, is rather colorful, but it is corroborated by the historic facts. Charles Belliveau, who had lived at Port Royal in 1755, but died at Quebec at the beginning of 1758, must have been on the Pembroke. This Charles Belliveau was the son of the widow of Jean Belliveau, enumerated near the fort in 1714, but who in fact lived on the north bank of the Dauphin River, between her own family, the Melanson, and Charles Guilbeau. It is thus not surprising that the son of Jean Belliveau is found with the son of Charles Guilbeau aboard the Pembroke.44

         Melanson Village was founded by the descendants of Charles Melanson and Marie Dugas.45 This was a numerous family. The Melanson, as well as other families on the north bank of the river, the Belliveau and the Guilbeau lived opposite Ile aux Chevrese(Goat Island), the place where the embarking of the Acadians on the Pembroke took place. The proximity of the island explains why these families were embarked there, with those from the south bank and those from the Cape at Port Royal. But our reasons for counting the Melanson with the other passengers on the boat are not solely geographical, and bring us to another criterion.

         If certain Acadians were on the Pembroke due to their place of residence, what is still more important was the kinship between the neighboring families. They were all issue of those people who remained at Port Royal under the English occupation. A good many of the families at Port Royal had left the region shortly after the 1714 census. In order to distance themselves from the English government, they left for other villages in Acadia, for Isle Royale, or for Isle Saint Jean. Later on, the ties of kinship and alliance were multiplied among the families who remained. These formed the core of the families on the Pembroke. These genealogical lines will be the third criterion for the reconstitution of the passenger list of the Pembroke.

         The greater part of the descendants of Denis Petitot dit Saint-Seine and Marie Robichaud lived at Port Royal. They were allied to the Gourdeau, Raymond, Landry, Surette, Doucet dit Maillard, and Pellerin families and to others who remained in the village. It was the same for the descendants of Prudent Robichaud and for those of his brother Francois. Charles Dugas, for example, one of the men named in the "Lettre des anciens habitants de Port Royal," was married to a daughter of Francois Robichaud. As for the Boudros, Charles Boudrot was married to a daughter of Denis Petitot dit Saint-Seine Sr. and Marguerite Landry, and his brother Pierre Boudrot married secondly a daughter of Charles Belliveau, the future hero of the Pembroke. His first wife was a Melanson from Melanson Village. One of the daughters of Charles Belliveau was married to a Pellerin. The descendants of two other families enumerated at the Cape in 1714 those of Jean Babineau and Marguerite Boudrot, and those of Claude Landry and Marguerite Theriault were, like the Robichaud and the Petitot, at the center of this extended family. One of the Babineau daughters was married to a descendant of Charles Melanson and Marie Dugas from Melanson Village, while the other was married to a son of Claude Landry and Marguerite Theriault. Another son of these latter was married to a daughter of Denis Petitot dit Saint-Seine. As we have seen, the mother of Charles Belliveau was a Melanson of Charles family, and the wife of Jean-Baptiste dit Toc Landry was also from the same family. These Melanson daughters were sisters of Charles and Ambroise Melanson who, we believe, were on the Pembroke, and of Claude Melanson, whose widow was also probably there. Marie-Josephe Granger, wife of Pierre dit Parrotte Melanson, and Madeleine Melanson, first wife of Pierre dit Grand Pierre Boudrot, were through their mothers (themselves daughters of Bernard Bourg and Francoise Brun) first cousins of Charles Dugas and of Joseph Guilbeau dit l'Officier. These connections between the Melanson and the Bourg and these other families certainly or probably aboard the Pembroke, even more than their geographic situation, make us believe that they must have remained with their relatives. Finally, the Doucet dit Maillard of the Cape, allied to the Landry/Petitot dit Saint-Seine, had fewer links with the other families.

         The fourth criterion requires that the passengers of the Pembroke be present at Port Royal during the period leading up to the Deportation. From the baptismal and marriage records we can nearly always determine who lived there during the 1750s. However, at this period some families fled Port Royal to seek refuge in the region of Chignectou where they figure in the censuses of January 1752, and of the winter of 1754-1755, or on Isle Saint Jean where they figure on the census of 1752 on in the church registers. It is scarcely possible that these families could have returned to Port Royal in 1755 and been embarked on the Pembroke. We can thus discount them.

The Destiny of the Refugees

         According to the letter to abba Daudin at the end of July 1756, the refugees of the Pembroke were preparing to go to Quebec. In order to do this, they would have taken the traditional route through Canada, first by canoe on the Saint John River, then up the Madawaska River to Lake Temiscouata, followed by a portage to the Trois-Pistoles River, in order to reach the Saint Lawrence River.46 The first act to which we have reference in the registers of Notre-Dame Church of Quebec is the burial on September 7th, 1756 of Rosalie Raymond, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Raymond and Marie-Josephe Mius d'Azy. The Raymond, enumerated at the Cape in 1714 and allied to the Petitot dit Saint-Seine, were very probably on the Pembroke. Of course other Acadians arrived in Quebec by other routes, even before those from the Pembroke. According to Bigot, 200 Acadians in two small embarkations from Isle Saint Jean arrived at Quebec City in October 1755, joining 400 others already escaped to the capitol.47 Among these last were those from the Pembroke, as well as others who had fled from the Saint Jean River, from Isle Saint Jean and from the Miramichi River. It is very probable that any Acadians from this group who were originally from the Cape or from the region to the west of Port Royal were from the Pembroke.

         It is at once tragic and ironic to know that having succeeded in escaping the Deportation, these Acadians only reached Quebec City to die in the epidemic of "picote" or "petite variole" (smallpox) which struck the city between November 1757 and March 1st , 1758. Between these dates are found the burials of over 330 Acadians, including some passengers from the Pembroke, who were among the 1300 who had sought refuge in Quebec. It is particularly from these burial records that we know the names of the Acadians who were found there at this period.48

         Most of the escapees from the Pembroke who survived the epidemic left the city of Quebec shortly afterwards. They dispersed and settled at l'Assomption, at Saint-Jacques de l'Achigan, at Bellechasse, at Deschambeault, at Yamachiche, and elsewhere in Quebec with other Acadian refugee families.49 Not one family returned to Acadia.

         Furthermore, not all the Acadians of the Pembroke fled to Canada. According to the letter of August 6th, 1756, Vaudreuil commanded Boishebert to "transport to the Miramichi all the Acadians who are at Cocagne, and likewise all the families who could not subsist at the St-Jean River and its environs." According to Vaudreuil, the Acadians themselves demanded to go there. Their deputies sent to Montreal

stated to Monsieur l'Intendant and to me that Miramichi is the only place where they could remain in order to subsist during the next winter, since the fishing is abundant and since little aid was sent them from Quebec they hope to sustain themselves there which they would be unable to do on the St-Jean River because of the difficulties of transport through Themiscouata: we granted them their request.50

From Miramichi, these families fled toward the north. Among them were several families from the Pembroke. Those of Charles Dugas as well as that of Joseph Guilbeau dit l'Officier were listed in the censuses, one at Caraquet in 1761 and the other at Restigouche in 1760. Other refugees from the Pembroke went the same route. We believe that at least some other families from the Pembroke those of Grand Pierre Boudrot (family 10), at Restigouche in 1760; of Pierre dit Parrotte Melanson (family 29), and of Charles dit Charlot Melanson (family 34), both at Caraquet in 1761; and of Gregoire Pellerin (family 35), at Restigouche in 1760 and Nipisiguit in 1761--also ended up at Miramichi. They were closely allied to the other families transported on the boat and had probably lived up to 1755 in the geographic limits that we have established at Port Royal. According to the Memoire sur les Affaires de Canada depuis 1749 jusque 1760, several Pembroke families went to Isle Saint Jean, but we have not been able to identify any that went there.51 In any case, because of the lack of provisions, these refugee families on the island would have probably also been sent to Quebec where they would have met up with other Pembroke families.

Other Considerations

         Considering the relatively low mortality rate among Acadian children before the Deportation, we presume that nearly all the children born at Port Royal to families who were later embarked on the Pembroke survived to be embarked with their parents. The registers of Saint Jean Baptiste church of Port Royal exist up to just before the time of the Deportation. We can thus rather easily reconstitute each family. Several children, like their parents, died later at Quebec, as witnessed by their burial acts. But the great number of children who disappeared without a trace after 1755 is doubtlessly explained by the rigors of conditions undergone by these Acadian families after December 5th, 1755, the date of their embarking on the Pembroke. One month on the boat, followed by six months of misery on the Saint Jean River had undoubtedly caused them to perish in great numbers, especially the youngest and the most aged. Those who did arrive in Quebec had also to undergo the difficulties and the distresses of such a long voyage. Those who went to the Miramichi River and to the Bay of Chaleurs had seen four very hard and dangerous years, especially with the famine of the winter of 1756-1757.

         Certain families had some grown children for whom we find no marriage or burial act before the Deportation. On the passenger list which follows, for the daughters over twenty years of age, we have indicated the absence of proof of their presence on the Pembroke with a question mark [?]. We have presumed also that some sons who were 24 years or over in 1755 and who disappeared from the documents had died young or, more probably, had left the family home before the Deportation.

         It is also very possible that certain families included children for whom no act attests to their existence. Some children whose baptismal act is missing appear later in the documents at Quebec, at Restigouche, at Caraquet or at Fort Beausejour. But others, who died between the day of Deportation and the first notice identifying their family afterwards, have left no trace.

         Finally, since we have the Port Royal registers, we presume that the elderly for whom there is no burial record were still living. However, among the baptismal, marriage and burial acts, those most often missing are the burial records. It is thus possible that one or two persons died before the Deportation, without their deaths being indicated in the registers.

         With so much unknown and uncertain, it is impossible to produce a definitive list. We hope that other researches will eventually furnish new information which will add appreciably to the data in this role.

Explicative Notes

         Heads of household are assigned numbers, followed by the letter h (for a man) and f (for a woman). Close relatives of the head of family, like an aged parent, are associated with the family of one of their near relations; the letter A has been accorded to them, as in 01A.


Bat = Batiscan, Quebec
Bell = Bellechasse, Quebec
bp = baptized
Car-Sd = South Carolina
Cbg = Charlesbourg, Quebec
CEA = Centre d'rtudes acadiennes/(Center of Acadian Studies), Universitr de Moncton
celib = unmarried
Cp-S = Cap-Sante, Quebec
Cp-St-Ig = Cap-Saint-Ignace, Quebec
Cqt = Caraquet, New Brunswick
Crltn = Carlton, Quebec
Conn = Connecticut, U.S.A.
Desch = Deschambault, Quebec
Fr-Bjr = Fort Beausejour, Acadia
Grd = Grondins, Quebec
Hfx = Halifax, Acadia
I S-J = Isle Saint Jean (Prince Edward Island)
Kam = Kamouraska, Quebec
L'Asm = L'Assomption, Quebec
L'Is = L'Islet, Quebec
Lot = Lotbiniere, Quebec
Lsvle = Louiseville, Quebec
Mask = Maskinonge, Quebec
Mass = Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Mq = Miquelon
Nic = Nicolet, Quebec
Nip = Nipisiguit, Acadia
(Bathurst, New Brunswick)
Nou-Angl = New England
Pgt = Pisiguit, Acadia
(Windsor, Nova Scotia)
PR = Port Royal, Acadia
PT = Port Toulouse, Acadia
Pt-Cap = Point Coupee, Louisiana
Qc = Quebec City, Quebec
reh = marriage rehabilitation
Rest = Restigouche, Quebec
Riv St-Jn = Saint Jean River, New Brunswick
SPM = Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Ste-F = Sainte-Foy, Quebec
St-Hy = Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec
St-Jm = Saint-Joachim, Quebec
St-Mv = Saint Martinville, Louisiana
St-Pre = Saint-Pierre, Isle of Orleans, Qc
Sor = Sorel, Quebec
vf / vve = widower / widow
viv = living
Vir = Virginia, U.S.A.
Yam = Yamachiche, Quebec

To look at the list of families that were on the Pembroke when it was deporting them in 1755 click on the ship below:

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@ Paul Delaney, Professor & Researcher Moncton University
and Lucie LeBlanc Consentino for presentation
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